MISR Where on Earth...? Quiz #31

*Please note: Between July 10 12:00 pm PDT and July 11 4:15 pm PDT, the quiz experienced issues with the prize submission system. If you completed all nine questions correctly during this time, please complete the quiz again to submit your prize entry. The prize deadline has been extended 24 hours to compensate for the downtime. The MISR team thanks you for your patience!*

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) team at NASA is pleased to offer the 31st "Where on Earth...?" quiz.

Here’s how it works: When you press “Start,” you will be presented with nine multiple-choice questions (one question for each of MISR's nine cameras) about the area seen in the image in the background. You are encouraged to research the answers using any website or reference material you like. You cannot go back to previous questions, so make sure of your answer before proceeding! If you answer all questions correctly, you will have a chance to enter for a prize. The deadline for prize entries is July 18, 2019, at 4:00 p.m. PDT.

This natural color image was acquired by the vertical-viewing camera of the MISR instrument in July 2017 and represents an area of about 190 miles by 150 miles (300 kilometers by 240 kilometers). Note that north is not necessarily at the top.

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1. Where on Earth?

Which country or countries are visible within this image?

Two countries are visible in this image: Croatia and Italy. The body of water between them is the Adriatic Sea, with Italy to the west and Croatia to the east.
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2. Great Walls

20 April 2013, JERRYE AND ROY KLOTZ MD, CC-BY-SA-3.0

In the 1300s, a series of defensive walls were constructed in southern Croatia, stretching over two-and-a-half miles in length. A village connected to the northernmost end of this wall has a fortress whose name stems from a word that means what?

20 April 2013, JERRYE AND ROY KLOTZ MD, CC-BY-SA-3.0
The village of Mali Ston lies at the end of the Croatian Wall of Ston. The fortress of Koruna is the main defensive line there; the name comes from several smaller towers arranged in the shape of a crown. In Croatian, Serbian and Bosnian, "kruna" means "crown."
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3. Ships at Sea

Ships with sails navigating through the Adriatic Sea often encounter large waves from storms due to the narrow width of the passageway. During the time of the Roman Empire, a historian and translator was shipwrecked in Croatia when he was en route to Rome to negotiate the release of Roman prisoners. Which Croatian island was this figure shipwrecked on?

Titus Flavius Josephus traveled to Rome in 64AD when Emperor Nero ruled in order to release Jewish priests that had been incarcerated in Roman prisoners. He was shipwrecked off the island of Dubrovnik, which is also where other historical figures such as King Richard the Lionheart have crashed.
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4. Liquid Gold

Pixabay License

Olive oil companies in Croatia are often founded by families and passed down from generation to generation. Though Croatia does not produce as much olive oil as countries such as Italy, their family-grown olive oils have been gaining recognition in international competitions. Which of the following statements about olive oil is NOT true?

Pixabay License
While it is true that olive oil producers must be mindful of oil oxidation and its detrimental effects to olive oil quality, the enzymes induced by oxygen actually break down olive oil’s polyphenol compounds, which are known to constitute the majority of olive oil flavor as well as its antioxidant properties. Producers take preventative measures, such as covering the surface of mixing tanks with nitrogen and switching to faster grinding techniques, to reduce the effects of oxidation.
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5. Rocky Roads

Paklenica4.jpg, M.Dirgėla, CC BY 2.5

The karst rock formation stretches over the expanse of Croatia, especially in the Dinaric Alps. Which of the following is NOT true of Croatia’s karst topography?

Paklenica4.jpg, M.Dirgėla, CC BY 2.5
Croatia’s karst cartography consists mostly of soluble rocks, such as limestone and gypsum—not granite.
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6. Carnival Teaser

RijekaPhotos, Rijeka - City Tower of Rijeka in the night, CC BY-SA 4.0

The largest carnival in Croatia occurs annually in the city of Rijeka and features a plethora of festival foods, music and performances, including a children’s parade, a carnival snowboarding session and the election of the carnival queen. Which of the following statements about the Rijeka Carnival is NOT true?

RijekaPhotos, Rijeka - City Tower of Rijeka in the night, CC BY-SA 4.0
A provision of the City Council in 1400s, not 1650, prohibited citizens from obscuring their faces with masks to prevent anonymous criticism of government ruling. The carnival, now a symbol of humor and festivities, represents the overcoming of that provision and now embraces the idea that anyone can be whoever they want at the Rijeka Carnival.
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7. Blue Grottos

The_blue_cave_on_Biševo_Island,_Croatia, FusTup, CC-BY-SA-4.0

The formation of underwater caves and sea caves offers a spectacular view for Croatian tourists and locals alike. One of the most famous sea caves in Croatia is located on the island of Biševo—upon entering, viewers can see sunlight reflecting off the blue waters, illuminating the entirety of the cavern with an eerie blue light. When news of the cave was first shared with the world, to what famous sea cave was this Croatian one compared?

The_blue_cave_on_Biševo_Island,_Croatia, FusTup, CC-BY-SA-4.0
Biševo’s Blue Cave in Croatia was first discovered in 1884, but came to international attention in 1885 when Baron Eugen von Ransonet (sometimes spelled as von Ransonnet, or von Ransonnet-Villez) described it to Austrian newspapers (the Neue Freie Presse), comparing it to the world famous Grotta Azzurra in Capri.
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8. Cave Dwellers

A cave in Croatia once was home to an ancient subspecies of the genus Homo. The cave is now an archaeological site, and several remains of this prehistoric subspecies were analyzed in a project draft in 2010. From which samples were 400 milligrams of bone taken?

Three Neanderthal samples were collected from Vindija Cave in northern Croatia in 2010, and the genetic information from these samples was used to put together a map of the Neanderthal genome in the Neanderthal Genome Project.
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9. Thumbprint Island

On its coast facing the Adriatic Sea, Croatia has many small, unique islands. One of these, Baljenac Island, when aerially viewed, resembles a fingerprint: more than 14 miles (23 kilometers) of drywall wind across the island in an intricate, fingerprint-like pattern. Which of the following statements about Baljenac’s walls is NOT true?

An invasive forest of coniferous pine has been threatening to overtake the island in recent years.