Every year toward end of the semester, when students have just finished their second round of exams and they’re irritable, burned out and just plain over it, I walk into the oceanography class I teach with “the plankton lecture.” They give me this look that says, “Aww, come on, you’ve got to be kidding.” But I’m obsessed with plankton, obsessed. And I want the whole world to know. Plankton are da bomb, plankton rule, plankton are the bestest, awesomest, sickest beasts ever.
So you can imagine how psyched I was to smack talk with plankton expert and principal investigator of NASA’s North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study (NAAMES) Mike Behrenfeld. He’s interested in the link between the blooming plankton food web and its influence on global climate. See, when animal plankton and bacteria munch on the plant plankton, organic compounds the plants produce get broken into itty bitty pieces. These small particles become aerosolized, which means they get lofted out of the ocean and into the atmosphere by wind and breaking waves, where they become the condensation nuclei around which water droplets form. So when these tiny creatures of the sea multiply, those bloom events end up influencing clouds.
Now, the North Atlantic Ocean is home to the biggest annual plankton event on the planet. “It’s by far the biggest bloom. It goes all the way across the North Atlantic from about 40 degrees north up to the Arctic ice,” Behrenfeld told me. It’s kind of like a Coachella festival for plankton. “To study the plankton bloom stuff you need a ship, and to study the aerosol stuff you need an airplane, which explains why NAAMES combines planes and ships,” he told me.
The North Atlantic also has extremely particle-free air, so the restricted availability of these aerosols limits water in the atmosphere’s ability to form droplets. It's the ocean’s biology that might provide an otherwise rare opportunity for water droplets to condense around. And that means a small amount of organic aerosols can go a long way. NAAMES “is an opportunity to tie the biology and aerosols together.”
I imagined being near the ocean, inhaling the salt air, feeling the moisture on my skin, in my hair. The spray reaches up, up, up, out of the sea. And just below the surface, the churning waves and frothy foam force bits of dissolved air down between the molecules of briny water. And the oxygen in that air supports life: microbes, plankton, bacteria and the food web that eats them.
“Phytoplankton, the plant plankton, are always tightly coupled with the creatures that eat them, and there are lots of things that like to eat them,” Behrenfeld explained. Oh, I’m sure they’re delicious. “The rate at which they are dying is almost perfectly matched with how fast they grow. The faster they grow, the faster they die. The only way they can bloom is if they get away from their predators. When they grow faster than the guys eating them, they’ll bloom.”
It’s that interface, the boundary zone where the atmosphere blends into the ocean and the ocean blends back into the atmosphere, the place where mixing, churning and friction form turbulence. That’s the interesting place, physically, biologically and personally. This air-water interface is also where oceanographers stick their heads out of the water and look up toward the sky to interact with atmospheric scientists who simultaneously look down from above into the water. Behrenfeld described it as working “with people in a different discipline so you get fresh ideas from another perspective and think about things in a new way.”
When I asked him what he liked most about watching NASA’s C130 fly overhead from the NAAMES ship, he responded, “The C130 is a big critter, and when they would do fly-bys all the scientists would run up on deck. The first time the plane flew over us we were heading along the east coast of the U.S. and the plane was heading up to Canada. It was nighttime, and I got a call from the instrument operator on the plane saying, ‘We’ll be over in a couple of minutes.’ This bright green flash of the Lidar instrument started cutting through the clouds and just painted the ship with green light. It was very cool. Scientists on the plane could see the ship, too.”
Behrenfeld and the rest of the NAAMES team hope this research will help them learn how changes in climate will impact ecosystems. “If you look at blooms from a traditional standpoint, that more sunlight causes more blooms, you might expect that warming would give you a bigger bloom. But phytoplankton blooms are initiated by deep ocean mixing, and if you warm the ocean, then your winter mixing depth will be less and you might have a later onset of the bloom or a smaller bloom. The potential consequences of change in blooming areas could be huge.”
Thank you for reading and for your comments.
North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study is part of NASA Earth Expeditions, a six-month field research campaign to study regions of critical change around the world.
If you’re anything like me, sometimes you feel a bit pessimistic. You can get caught in a bubble of icky vibes that bring you down. This is why I had difficulty writing about a conversation that climate communications expert Susan Hassol and I had about climate hope. We were discussing how to look toward the reality of climate change without freaking out or turning away. We agreed that being afraid is not helpful, and that a better response to the problem includes facing climate change with courage, optimism and integrity, while still feeling all of the stressful emotions, even though that’s hard.
Yet I wondered how to inspire others when I’m feeling unmoved and glum.
Then I went out to Riverside, Calif., where I gave a speech at the American Public Works Association, a group of city planners, public works officers, contractors and consultants who draw up plans for building roads, bridges, buildings and landscaping. I learned about an extremely drought-tolerant grass species especially developed to avoid wasting water on golf courses. I sat near a guy who consulted a number of cities across California on their plans for multi-use pedestrian/cyclist/automobile roads.
In an instant, I understood Hassol’s point: “Of course there’s a huge problem, but if you keep hitting people with problems, they just want to pull the covers over their head. Focusing on the solutions is energizing, it’s inspiring, as opposed to leaving people so depressed that they have no energy to act. There really is a lot to be positive about.”
Look, I know it’s really hard to be optimistic when you’re down. So the best antidote to fight off the climate blues, according to Hassol, is to take action. “I do more work, give more talks, work with more scientists, get out there, and give people real hope. I also balance my reading,” she continued. “For every couple of articles I read in science journals about the melting poles, the hottest year on record, the worst fire season on record, the flooding, I try to look at what’s happening on the solutions side: the growth in solar and wind, the improvements in the economics of renewable energy, the ambitious action taking place in cities, states and countries around the world.”
“What makes people happier is more time to do the things that really matter,” Hassol continued. “Stuff is not what makes us happy. Relationships are what make us happy, walks in the woods, reading books with your kid. None of those things are based on consuming. This is about having more integrity in our lifestyle choices, about having more time, more peace. We can grow personally, without always growing the economy.”
There’s an extra positive bonus, she added: “You’ll know that you’re making a positive contribution to the world.”
Climate change is not distant in time or space. It’s in our own backyard now, affecting all of us. And we’re going to pay, one way or another, or as Hassol then reframed it more positively, “The sooner we reduce emissions, the less it will cost. So let’s do as much as we can, as fast as we can.”
She excitedly went on to list a number of positives, namely the big increases in renewable energy use across the board, from individuals to cities:
- Scotland generated nearly 60 percent of its electricity with renewables in 2015 and is aiming for 100 percent.
- Nine massive U.S. companies pledged to go 100 percent renewable, including Nike, Walmart, Goldman-Sachs, Johnson and Johnson, Proctor and Gamble, and Starbucks. This is a good financial investment, given that the most ambitious companies have seen a 27 percent return on their investments. They’re not doing it because they love polar bears; they’re doing it because it’s good for their bottom line.
- Goldman-Sachs in particular says it’s going for 100 percent renewables by 2020.
Between climate change and El Niño, 2016 will likely break the global temperature record. But we’ll potentially have a turning point with renewables, so this year could be big. Listening to her voice got me excited, even though I’d woken up melancholy.
I wondered when climate change and a strong push for renewables will make its way to the top of the inbox. “The thing that gives me the most hope,” she said, “is that I feel we’re right at that inflection point right now. It’s not a time to let up, it’s a time to push hard.”
Thanks for reading. I look forward to your comments.
Cimate change news is intense. Ice caps are melting, the fire season lasts all year long; we have epic storms plus record-breaking floods, droughts and cyclones.
And this year will probably be the Hottest. Year. Ever.
When I interact with the public, I’m bombarded with questions such as “Are we all going to die?” and “How soon will humans go extinct?”
Happy Earth Day, everyone (wipes brow, rolls eyes).
Yet, when I wake up in the morning I'm excited to come to work. I'm energized. I’m amped, really amped. As in, kicking-butt-and-taking-names amped. Why? Because global warming is the greatest challenge of our lives, and challenge is what drives us. Challenge provides us with opportunity, challenge forces us to grow, challenge opens the way for amazing achievement. Challenge is exciting. Without challenge, without struggle, without discomfort, no one would ever advance.
So, when someone gets in my face and is super negative, I try to stay powerful, strong and confident. I tell myself that pressure is okay and I'm going to keep moving no matter what. Because I care about this planet so much that I choose to make a difference.
Yes, carbon dioxide levels are high and increasing rapidly. Yes, future generations will have some extraordinarily difficult challenges to deal with. But denial, avoidance and helplessness aren’t solutions. Can you imagine if we NASA peeps just sat there saying “Oh no, that’s too hard” when faced with huge obstacles? Are you kidding me? Come on! You think it’s easy to build science instruments on satellites and launch them into space? You think it’s easy to measure glaciers melting around the edges of Greenland, or the condition of coral reefs in the Pacific, or plankton blooms across the North Atlantic, or conduct eight field research campaigns in one year?
When the going gets tough—and it does, almost every day—we don’t just stop. We keep working. We know that no successful person got As on every test and that failure and struggle are part of accomplishment. We know that grit and determination will get you everywhere!
In this blog, I write about ocean pollution, sea level rise, climate change and decreasing biodiversity not to scare you, but to empower you, so we can make a difference—you and I, together. Someone reading this blog entry might be the creator of a new breakthrough technology, and then there will be a whole new reality.
So, when you think about the challenge of climate change this Earth Day, consider the possibility of welcoming that challenge. Our shared story could be a story about not giving up, about looking forward to growth, about saying, “Game on.”
Find out more about NASA earth expeditions here.
Join NASA for a #24Seven celebration of Earth Day.
Thank you for caring enough to make a difference and for being powerful in the world.
Hey, readers: Our team reads your comments. We share them at our meetings. Sometimes they make us laugh, or sigh, or even scratch our heads.
We see that you see us. Yay for connecting!
And this is how I know you’ve noticed NASA’s latest airborne campaign, where NASA scientists fly a bunch of NASA instruments on a NASA airplane to study more details about Earth. Cool, right?
Lately, we’ve been flying around the edge of Greenland collecting radar data about how much its glaciers are melting into the sea. And the most common comment we get goes something like “Wheee! Let’s go. Take me with you.” When I told a friend about the possibility of joining the team in the field, she exclaimed, “All expenses paid?”
HAHAHA … no. As if a NASA expedition to Greenland is like a resort vacation instead of a giant heaping pile of hard work.
“When I looked down at the rivers of ice running into the ocean, it was shocking to think about the effects of rising sea levels as far away as California or Antarctica,” said Principle Investigator Josh Willis, two days after returning from his first trip to observe this pristine part of our planet as it melts into the sea and goes bye-bye. “Yet, I had a blast.” Because even though we all probably have many complex emotions about climate change, ice mass loss and sea level rise, we can still simultaneously feel super duper stoked about the chance to fly over the glaciers of Greenland in a freaking NASA plane. “The mountains, the ice, the water and the ice in the water are incredibly striking even though it’s lonely to see it disappearing at the hands of human activity,” he told me.
Yes, emotions are weird, and yes, there’s an awkward contrast or odd juxtaposition between feeling both thrill and grief at the same time.
But that’s life, I guess.
So just in case you’re still envisioning a champagne-swilling, caviar-scoffing, gangsta, hip-hop music video scene, here are a few things that might surprise you about the kind of major effort it takes to get on board NASA’s G-III plane and join the Oceans Melting Greenland field campaign:
Kick booty in a fire-resistant flight suit
So, you think you’d kick some booty in one of these flight suits? Oh, yeah. Totally. Well, so do we. Would you kill to have one? But the real reason the pilots think they’re so fab is because they’re fire-resistant. They. Resist. Fire! With racks and racks of science equipment wired with electrical cables, the crew has to be extra careful about fire on the plane. So wearing one of these flight suits is required.
A load of gas and no mistakes
A trip to Greenland sounds all romantic ‘n’ stuff, but operating a science instrument aboard a flying science lab on a six-hour flight every day is hard work. Just check out these flight paths. According to Project Manager Steve Dinardo, “You get a full load of gas and no mistakes.” Notice the flight path zigzags across the complicated coastline of the entire island. That’s because global warming of Earth’s atmosphere is melting the top of the ice sheet. But, aha! The ocean water around Greenland is even warmer than the air. That warm water is busy melting the glaciers from around their edges, hence the name, Oceans Melting Greenland, which will find out exactly how much of this melting is going on.
Instruments, instruments and more instruments. And did I mention some serious training?
The NASA modified G-III aircraft is … modified. (Did you notice the word “modified”?) What modified means is the plane has holes in it so experimental science instruments can stick out. And more scientific instruments are attached in, under and onto the plane in all sorts of configurations. To get to fly on this baby, you’d better have some training. Yep, some serious training: Safety training, first aid training, survival training. You get the idea.
Keep warm, in style
I can work the runway like a glamazon in this red coat, but it’s rated for survival in 50 degrees below zero. I said survival. In case of emergency. Does this sound like your all-inclusive vacation package now? With a survival coat? And there’s a survival vest too, with a beacon attached, and food rations, a pocketknife tool set, fishing gear, first aid supplies, a radio and a laser pointer for playing with cats—oops, I mean for signaling emergency and attracting rescue. The thing weighs about 20 pounds. Everyone on the plane has one of these puppies, and you’d better believe they know how to use it. If there’s a problem, the team would have to survive three to five days out in the wilderness until they're rescued. I don’t mean to scare you, but at NASA, when we say we care about safety, we’re not messing around.
“It’s not a triumph of human achievement that we’re melting the ice sheet,” said Willis. “When you see how huge these glaciers are and this huge chunk of this ice sheet disappearing into the ocean, it’s almost incomprehensible even when you see it from 40,000 feet.”
Find out more about Oceans Melting Greenland here.
View and download an OMG poster/infographic here.
Thank you for your comments.
Oceans Melting Greenland is part of NASA Earth Expeditions, a six-month field research campaign to study regions of critical change around the world.
Yes, yes, Greenland is melting. You already knew that…probably. And the giant flux of fresh water pouring out of the second largest ice sheet on the planet isn’t slowing down anytime soon. Greenland’s ice melt is actually accelerating. In the last decade alone, NASA’s twin GRACE satellites measured it gushing 2 trillion tons of ice like a fire hose pouring fresh water into the North Atlantic.
But it’s easier to focus on politics, celebrity gossip, reality TV and cat videos than on Earth’s climate. It seems like everyone’s all “Greenland? Who cares. Whatever. Next.” And that upsets me.
Is it really that easy to pretend the effects of global warming don’t exist?
We overlook Greenland ice loss at our own peril. It’s one of the largest contributors to accelerating sea level rise, and in the U.S. alone, nearly 5 million people live in 2.6 million homes at less than 4 feet above high tide. If you happen to be one of them, you should definitely pay attention to Greenland.
Fortunately for all of us, NASA is paying attention to Greenland in a big way. We’re so concerned about the amount of ice loss that we’ve named a Greenland observing expedition Oceans Melting Greenland, or OMG for short, because that's the most appropriate response to the phenomenon.
This week, OMG heads up north on one of NASA’s G-III modified airplanes to continue a five-year mission that will look closely at how warming ocean water interacts with glaciers surrounding Greenland and melts them. The project began this past year by mapping undersea canyons via a ship equipped with an echo sounder. For this next part of the investigation, a radar instrument attached to the bottom of the G-III, called the Airborne Glacier and Land Ice Surface Topography Interferometer (GLISTIN-A), will be able to measure precisely how much the oceans are eating away at the edges of the ice on a glacier-by-glacier basis.
Instrument integration (a fancy word for attaching instruments to planes and making sure they work and don’t come loose) went down at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center, and Principal Invesigator Dr. Josh Willis, Project Manager Steve Dinardo, Co-Investigator Dr. Ian Fenty and I headed there to check it out.
Glaciers on the edge
As the technicians and engineers tweaked fistfuls of wires, we crawled in, under, through and around the aircraft. Then Dr. Ian Fenty (who helped design the flight plan) and I sat aboard our flying science lab and talked ice loss for a while. “We often find that a glacier that’s been retreating a lot might be in 1,000 feet of water,” he explained. “Whereas the glacier that’s not thinning very much is in water that’s only 100 or 200 feet deep.” That’s because the layers of ocean water around Greenland are in a very unique situation, where you have colder fresh glacier meltwater near the surface over salty ocean water that, due to climate change, has been warming. The water found at 600 feet and below is a relatively warm 4 degrees Celsius compared with the surface water, which is just near freezing at 0 degrees. This means that the “primary suspect” behind the acceleration of Greenland’s melting glaciers is the warming ocean waters that can get right up against the edge and interact with the glacier itself.
As the surface of lower elevation glaciers melts, the water percolates through the ice and forms giant subglacial channels, like a river system under the ice. If the ice running through these narrow rivers breaks off, the friction between the glacier and the substrate gets reduced a bit and literally stretches the ice so the glacier thins out. OMG’s GLISTIN-A radar is going to measure the height of the ice. “If we see a change in elevation from one year to the next, we can know how much ice is being lost and how much the movement of the glacier is speeding up.” Over the next five years OMG plans to go back to Greenland to look for more changes.
As I left the hangar and headed home, I thought about how Greenland is such a weird part of the world and how much I hope our society can put aside its troubles so we can work together to preserve it.
Find out more about Oceans Melting Greenland here.
Thank you for your comments.
A few weeks ago, a journalism student approached me about interviewing a NASA spokesperson about the pros and cons of going to Mars. I could tell by her tone and the way she phrased her request that it was thinly veiled code for “I think it’s stupid for NASA to waste so much money sending people to Mars.”
Look, I appreciate Planet Earth as much as, if not way more, than the next person. I’m one of the few people I know working at NASA who has never even wanted to be an astronaut. Sure, floating and flying gravity-free would be full-on fantastic for like…wait for it…fifteen minutes. But being stuck in a metal tube without windows or showers, eating nasty food and using a space bathroom make me shake my head no faster than you can say “Buzz Aldrin.”
But really, I have to have the smell of dirt, the smell of the soil of our Earth. Yes, you may be rolling your eyes right now and thinking I’m weird. But trust me, smells affect our reptilian brain and they’re super important. You wouldn’t value the smell of Earth until you didn’t have it, and then it would drive you bonkers. Besides, if you’re a journalist, you should know that NASA sends more robots to space than it sends people. Robots are a bargain, so as far as I’m concerned, we can send as many of them to the red planet as we please.
Still, I understand why some people get upset about the idea of going to Mars, whether we send humans or robots or salami sandwiches. But the arguments for and against have already been hashed out and are so well documented that anyone with access to the Internet can read up on the topic for days.
So, now back to Earth, the interesting planet. And scene.
Except wait a minute. Wait just one minute.
What if you got the chance to go inside one of the space-pod living quarters NASA is developing for astronauts to potentially live on the surface of a planet other than Earth? Would you be curious? Just a little? Would you go inside and check it out just to see it? Hell to the yes you would. Totally.
So would I.
Which explains how I managed to be standing in the entry area part of “the habitat” in the Structures and Materials Lab at NASA’s Langley Research Center, hearing a drawn out “whoosh” sound. “You’re gonna get a burst-a air, and then you’re gonna have your ears pop,” said David Mercer, a NASA application developer, in a Virginia accent. He was giving me a tour of NASA’s Expandable Habitat Demonstrator, a white pod-looking thing that reminded me of a giant dinosaur egg, the possible-someday-future crib of up to six astronauts.
Mercer explained that the whoosh sound was the pressure being equalized in the air interlock area. It’s like one of those mud rooms where people store their galoshes, and where astronauts would probably store their uniforms so as not to contaminate the living quarters. Astronauts would equalize the pressure in this entryway before going outside by creating a vacuum if they were on the moon or by filling the air interlock area with Martian atmosphere if they were on Mars.
The habitat and the journey
After the pressure equalized, we stepped across a threshold, which looked like the porthole entryway from any sci-fi film you’ve ever seen, and into the inner compartment of the habitat, a round white space that was about the size of my bedroom. I wondered how anybody could live in the teeny little room.
We emerged from our dino egg and Mercer continued to show me around the Expandable Structures for Lunar Landers and Habitats Laboratory. I was surprised to learn that these odd, egg-like, otherworldly space-houses were made from lightweight, flexible, expandable and durable fabric and that these new, innovative materials would likely have countless uses here on this planet.
Then Mercer led me over to a crane-looking contraption with a space forklift and a space scoop attached to it like a ginormous Swiss army knife made for space: the Lightweight Surface Manipulator System, which gets mounted on top of the lander to unload the habitat. “The landers would get there before the astronauts,” he explained. “The first lander’s robots would go around scouting out places to set up base. You would probably go out with a mobile device like a plow and level everything out. Then another lander would come with a habitat, or several landers with several habitats.”
The point of all this is to design, develop and build various expandable structures, including landers, habitats, excavators, transport vehicles and construction tools that may someday serve as a sustained settlement or outpost on another planet. All of it needs to be versatile, modular, compact, durable and light-weight. Piece o’ cake, right?
On top of those challenges, astronauts have to be concerned about being bombarded with radiation during solar storms, which can last up to 36 hours. The journey to the moon is only two days, but a trip to Mars could take up to six months depending on the propulsion and how the orbits of the two planets line up. On a long journey like that, they’d have to go into some kind of protected area. Mercer pointed to a space the size of a small walk-in closet and described a scenario of up to four people huddling in the closet for the duration of the storms. Wheeee! Sounds super fun, right (sarcasm intended)? You could come out for a few 15-minute intervals during the storm, he explained, to take care of b’ness (if ya know what I mean).
But honestly, why do all this? Why go to all that trouble building and testing structures and materials for potential travel and habitation outside of Earth?
Because there’s something about having a goal that’s barely attainable that sets an aspirational tone for all of us, whether or not we work on NASA’s journey to Mars. Reaching towards an intangible goal, towards what seems almost impossible, inspires motivation, commitment, purpose. It’s visionary.
And being inspired by something visionary requires looking beyond what others regard as stupid or wasteful.
I look forward to reading your comments, visionary or otherwise.
“I’m looking at 10 glaciers and I’m sitting on one,” said Dr. Heidi Roop of the University of Rochester over satellite phone. “I’m looking at a landscape that’s been here for millions of years unaltered by people.” Roop had called me from Taylor Glacier, an outflow of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, which flows down through Antarctica’s McMurdo Dry Valleys. I’m looking at a mountain that no human has ever touched, ever. This is a landscape where it feels like humans shouldn’t be. There are no animal trails, no trees. There’s rock and ice and us.”
Roop and the rest of the eight-person team, which included one driller, two scientists, three Ph.D. candidates and a camp cook/manager, had come to drill for ice cores at Taylor Glacier because of its unique configuration. Drilling ice cores is a technique climate scientists use to collect samples of trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and carbon monoxide that have been trapped in air bubbles in the layers of polar ice.
Air bubbles make up 10 percent of glacier ice. That may sound incredible, but it's true. In fact, teams of scientists spend entire careers studying these ice cores to learn about Earth’s atmosphere. In a traditional ice core, the ice is horizontally layered. The surface layer is the youngest, made of recent snow with modern atmosphere filling tiny spaces between snowflakes. Ice core science teams drill vertically down through time. The deeper you drill, the further back in time you go. (The deepest borehole, at Vostok, Antarctica, is more than 3,600 meters deep.) According to Dr. Peter Neff, a glaciologist who was also on the call, “We now have a very good understanding of past greenhouse gas concentrations because there’s been so much research since the 1990s, especially methane, for example. The signal of methane concentration is globally representative and we know from these ice cores the heartbeat of methane through the past 800,000 years with high accuracy.”
Scientists drilling for ice cores head to Antarctica because it’s the cleanest place on the planet. (There’s so much more pollution and dust in the Northern Hemisphere.) “We’re not studying Antarctica itself, although Antarctica is a huge player in the global climate system," Neff said. "But rather we’re learning things about global climate that we can learn only in Antarctica. It’s so far away, yet it holds clues that inform our understanding of the rest of the world.”
Traveling back in time
Taylor Glacier is an unusual place on a continent that’s full of the unusual, which is why this group of scientists traveled there. The glacier flow has essentially tipped ice layers on their sides, so to travel back in time the team can simply walk across the glacier instead of having to drill deep down. Time is stretched out north to south, so “as you walk northward you’re going forward in time, from ice that’s 80,000 years old, past the coldest part of the last glacial period 20,000 years ago (when it was so cold and dry there was less vegetation, so the atmosphere was dusty), all the way to ice that’s only 8,000 years old,” Neff explained. The team also took their Ski-Doo down the glacier about 10 kilometers to a site where they previously found 125,000 to 130,000 year old ice, which formed during the last interglacial period—the last time global climate was close to today’s warm temperatures. Other ice core records suggest that this time period was actually several degrees warmer than today, making it our best analogue for the warm conditions we’re headed towards.
Because the twists and folds of Taylor Glacier bring old ice to the surface, scientists only need to drill a few meters deep to collect very large samples from specific time periods. The team can core down into, say, the transition at the end of the last glacial period 20,000 years ago, when the climate system shifted back towards warmer temperatures—with some rapid climate change “speed bumps” along the way. The team hopes that gathering large enough samples of gases from this time period will help us understand what drives large climate shifts, what the real rates of change are and if we’re headed towards any tipping points. “We can ask more specific questions because we can get much bigger samples, which gives us room to unlock minute details in the chemistry of gases trapped in the ice,” Neff said. “For some work, we’re literally chain-sawing a meter down into the ice and breaking it out with a big metal bar and taking out samples that are a meter long by 30 centimeters wide that weigh like 250 pounds,” Roop added. “You should see my biceps right now.”
24 hours of daylight
Although there is 24 hours of daylight during the summer in Antarctica, the drill team wakes up in the middle of the night when the sun moves behind a mountain range and creates a shadow for about five hours. “The sun just does a big circle around us, but the shadow makes it a lot colder, which keeps the drill from freezing into the glacier,” Neff explained. Then Roop added, “When the sun goes behind the mountain, the glacier crackles and pops—loud pops like gunshots—because of the temperature drop.”
Once they collect the ice cores, some are put into a pressure chamber under vacuum to remove all the modern air and are then melted. The gas from the ancient bubbles is released as the ice cores melt, and then gets carefully pulled into sample canisters, which are about the size of a SCUBA tank.
Near the end of this field campaign, the team will pull everything out to waiting helicopters using a big pink sled towed behind their Ski-Doo. The team will fly the ancient gases extracted from the ice cores to McMurdo Station before heading back to the University of Rochester Petrenko Lab, the Scripps Institute of Oceanography Severinghaus Laboratory, and the Oregon State University Ice Core and Quarternary Geochemistry Lab. The Ski-Doo will eventually hitch a ride from the helicopter as well, in a sling load dangling from a big wire cable tethered to the bottom of the helicopter. “Antarctica is a really emotional place," Roop said. "It’s a rare, rare, rare, rare opportunity to go where people don’t live, where people can’t live. This is the edge of where humans should be. There’s no trash, no animal tracks, no power lines, not even a bird; nothing to give you scale. It’s like the exhilaration of breaking a rule, poking a boundary. And there’s something thrilling about that.”
The National Science Foundation has a Presidential mandate to manage the U.S. Antarctic Program, under which it supports researchers, coordinates all U.S. science on the southernmost continent and in the surrounding ocean, and provides the infrastructure and logistical support needed to make the science possible.
Find out more about the University of Rochester Ice Core Expedition here.
Thank you for reading.
“The moment the satellite separated from the rocket got me feeling emotional,” Dr. Josh Willis, lead project scientist for the Jason-3 mission, told me. I imagined the satellite emerging from the nosecone of SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket and unfurling its solar panels 830 miles above where we were standing near the bar at the Jason-3 launch after-party. Seeing a NASA science dude with a crisp shirt, black suit jacket and—can you believe it—cufflinks was heartwarming. I recognized his dad, his wife, his in-laws nearby. My husband was there, too, along with most of our peers, all part of an odd little NASA ocean sciences extended family.
When Willis told me he “had affection” for the Jason-3 satellite, I felt relief; glad that I wasn’t the only one who’d been anthropomorphizing. He said that the French engineers from CNES, the French Space Agency, who were responsible for connecting the satellite to the rocket, had drawn a pair of eyes on the nitrogen storage bags used for sealing the satellite to prevent rust. “It looked like it was alive,” he said.
Unless you’re a total whack, your affection for flight hardware builds up over time. And Willis’ work with satellites that measure sea surface height goes back to TOPEX/Poseidon, the great granddaddy of ocean surface topography, which launched in 1992 when he was a graduate student. “Back then, the data was cool and interesting and was really accurate. It did what it was supposed to do, which was amazing to me.” TOPEX/Poseidon was originally designed as a 5-year mission to measure currents. “In the beginning, it wasn’t obvious that these satellites would measure climate change. It took years to ensure that the satellites were accurate enough to measure global sea level change, and, of course, now they’re the most important tool for measuring global warming.”
After 23 years of data, we’re continuing the series with the launch of Jason-3, the fourth member of the family. “That’s a huge triumph of science and engineering,” he explained. “NASA always wants to do new things, but for climate science, we really need to do the same thing over and over. That’s a different type of job.” I looked around at our spouses and thought about how I explain marriage to my single friends: You can get a lot of interesting things from a long-term commitment. Willis agreed. It’s a whole career, going the distance, not just one conquest after the other.
“It took years and years for the entire science team, which is a couple hundred people looking at this data year in and year out, to feel confident that we were measuring more than currents. Everything has to be perfect to measure global sea level rise.” And over that 23-year period, while the scientists’ abilities to use the data improved, global sea level rose an inch or two, which, sad but true, made it easier to measure.
Jason-3 launched just in time to observe the 2016 El Niño with its many extreme sea levels, storms and high winds in the ocean. The Jason-2 and Jason-3 satellites will fly right next to each other, separated by 60 seconds, and the calibration will happen over a wide range of different conditions. When I asked Willis if this year’s El Niño is bigger than the one in 1997-98, he said, “The water at its peak temperature in the Pacific this time is warmer than the peak temperature in 97-98. But what most people care about is rainfall, and by that measure, we’ll just have to wait and see. We’ve got a few more months before El Niño clobbers us here in the U.S. Plus, we’ve had another 18 years of global warming.”
“Let’s face it, the ocean dominates everything,” he continued. “Two-thirds of the planet’s surface is rising. That’s the story of global warming. You have to have a satellite to see that, and the Jasons do what nothing else can.”
As always, I welcome your comments.
TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 were cooperative missions between NASA and the French space agency, CNES. Additional partners in the Jason-2 mission included NOAA and Eumetsat. Jason-3 continues the international cooperation, with NOAA and Eumetsat leading the efforts, along with partners NASA and CNES.
The time has come, once again, to prepare for that thing we at NASA are best known for: launching satellites into space. And to commemorate this awesome occasion, I created, once again, an edible model.
This time, though, is a bit different. This time it’s Jason-3, and I kind of have a soft spot for it. See, Jason-3 is an oceanography satellite, and to me, the ocean will always be the most important thing in the world. Scheduled to launch January 17 at 10:42 a.m. PST, Jason-3 follows its predecessors, TOPEX/Poseidon (1992), Jason-1 (2001) and Jason-2 (2008, the first launch I ever saw), to continue measuring global ocean surface topography – or variations in sea level.
Gathering highly accurate sea-level measurements allows us to understand both global and regional changes in sea level rise, ocean circulation patterns and, of course, El Niño. (Yup, look outside. It’s raining its butt off, just like NASA scientists predicted it would, based on Jason-2 data.)
Also, by having a long, uninterrupted time series of data, we get the opportunity to better understand the long-term implications of ocean-warming due to climate change.
As usual, I made this model out of food I actually eat. The spacecraft bus is made of seafood risotto: rice, stock, butter, cream, clams, calamari, scallops, broccoli and saffron. The altimeter, which measures sea level, wave heights and wind speed, is tiger shrimp. The microwave radiometer, which measures water vapor and helps ensure instrument accuracy, is a clam shell. The GPS, which tells us the satellite’s exact position, is bell pepper. The DORIS instrument and the Laser Retroreflector Array, which also provide satellite location info, are green beans. The solar array is nori seaweed.
Because I care so much about our ocean, and because much of the seafood around the world is unsustainably caught, I always use the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch app when selecting seafood. The app gives recommendations for choosing seafood that’s fished or farmed in ways that have less environmental impact.
BTW, yes, I ate the model. It paired quite nicely with a buttery Chardonnay.
Thanks for reading,
TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 were cooperative missions between NASA and the French space agency, CNES. Additional partners in the Jason-2 mission included NOAA and Eumetsat. Jason-3 continues the international cooperation, with NOAA and Eumetsat leading the efforts, along with partners NASA and CNES.
It’s the winter solstice, the time of year when the Northern Hemisphere is the most tilted away from the sun and we get our shortest day and longest night. It’s a time to rest, to sit quietly and to reflect on the events of the past year. Most assuredly, 2015 will again be another record-breaking year for Earth’s climate. And while it’s true that you and I have probably shared many feelings of disappointment about climate change every year, year after year, recently I’ve noticed a glimmer of hope.
So let’s take a moment on this dark day to look towards the light of our shared future and be hopeful.
Here are a couple of things that made me feel optimistic over the past few weeks.
- COP 21 — On Dec. 12, 195 countries adopted the Paris Agreement at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change. The agreement aims to limit our planet's average global temperature rise to less than 2 degrees Celsius. Read the full document here. And while we all know that there is obviously much more work to do, the fact that we have some movement in the right direction is motivating.
- American Geophysical Union (AGU) conference — Last week 22.5 thousand Earth and space scientists from 114 countries attended AGU in San Francisco, California. This conference is where everyone comes to talk about their work and is also a great opportunity for the public to access the latest important science. I was inspired by a talk I heard by Susan Hassol of Climate Communication. Social psychology, she explained, tells us we’re more motivated by thinking that we’re not starting from scratch, that we’re already on our way. She pointed out that 84 percent of Americans support clean energy, for example. “Not only do we have to feel hopeful, but we have to speak hopefully because people are motivated by hope.” Hassol went on to point out that the cost of solar energy is falling, while the capacity of both solar and wind energy is rising. Yes, yes, yes, we are on our way.
- A new website, Climate Feedback, is poised to help scientists peer review the web by annotating directly into online media. For a person like me, who writes about climate science for a living, it’s been devastating to see inaccuracies and confusion on this subject sometimes perpetuated by the media. The possibility of the scientific community being able to provide publishers, authors and readers with feedback about the scientific credibility of their content could be a real game changer. This has the potential to shift the public towards a much better understanding of the evidence around climate science. I’m so nervously optimistic about this one, I can’t even say.
As this year comes to a close, I want to thank you for reading, sharing and joining together, and I’m so looking forward to our shared future.