January 19, 2016, 05:19 PST

Measuring global sea level: It’s a long-term relationship kind of thing

Dr. Josh Willis, lead project scientist for the Jason-3 mission, wears a bunny suit in JPL's clean room where the instrument was built.

Dr. Josh Willis, lead project scientist for the Jason-3 mission, wears a bunny suit in JPL's clean room where the instrument was built.

“The moment the satellite separated from the rocket got me feeling emotional,” Dr. Josh Willis, lead project scientist for the Jason-3 mission, told me. I imagined the satellite emerging from the nosecone of SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket and unfurling its solar panels 830 miles above where we were standing near the bar at the Jason-3 launch after-party. Seeing a NASA science dude with a crisp shirt, black suit jacket and—can you believe it—cufflinks was heartwarming. I recognized his dad, his wife, his in-laws nearby. My husband was there, too, along with most of our peers, all part of an odd little NASA ocean sciences extended family.

When Willis told me he “had affection” for the Jason-3 satellite, I felt relief; glad that I wasn’t the only one who’d been anthropomorphizing. He said that the French engineers from CNES, the French Space Agency, who were responsible for connecting the satellite to the rocket, had drawn a pair of eyes on the nitrogen storage bags used for sealing the satellite to prevent rust. “It looked like it was alive,” he said.

Unless you’re a total whack, your affection for flight hardware builds up over time. And Willis’ work with satellites that measure sea surface height goes back to TOPEX/Poseidon, the great granddaddy of ocean surface topography, which launched in 1992 when he was a graduate student. “Back then, the data was cool and interesting and was really accurate. It did what it was supposed to do, which was amazing to me.” TOPEX/Poseidon was originally designed as a 5-year mission to measure currents. “In the beginning, it wasn’t obvious that these satellites would measure climate change. It took years to ensure that the satellites were accurate enough to measure global sea level change, and, of course, now they’re the most important tool for measuring global warming.”

After 23 years of data, we’re continuing the series with the launch of Jason-3, the fourth member of the family. “That’s a huge triumph of science and engineering,” he explained. “NASA always wants to do new things, but for climate science, we really need to do the same thing over and over. That’s a different type of job.” I looked around at our spouses and thought about how I explain marriage to my single friends: You can get a lot of interesting things from a long-term commitment. Willis agreed. It’s a whole career, going the distance, not just one conquest after the other.

“It took years and years for the entire science team, which is a couple hundred people looking at this data year in and year out, to feel confident that we were measuring more than currents. Everything has to be perfect to measure global sea level rise.” And over that 23-year period, while the scientists’ abilities to use the data improved, global sea level rose an inch or two, which, sad but true, made it easier to measure.

Jason-3 launched just in time to observe the 2016 El Niño with its many extreme sea levels, storms and high winds in the ocean. The Jason-2 and Jason-3 satellites will fly right next to each other, separated by 60 seconds, and the calibration will happen over a wide range of different conditions. When I asked Willis if this year’s El Niño is bigger than the one in 1997-98, he said, “The water at its peak temperature in the Pacific this time is warmer than the peak temperature in 97-98. But what most people care about is rainfall, and by that measure, we’ll just have to wait and see. We’ve got a few more months before El Niño clobbers us here in the U.S. Plus, we’ve had another 18 years of global warming.”

“Let’s face it, the ocean dominates everything,” he continued. “Two-thirds of the planet’s surface is rising. That’s the story of global warming. You have to have a satellite to see that, and the Jasons do what nothing else can.”

As always, I welcome your comments.

Laura

TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 were cooperative missions between NASA and the French space agency, CNES. Additional partners in the Jason-2 mission included NOAA and Eumetsat. Jason-3 continues the international cooperation, with NOAA and Eumetsat leading the efforts, along with partners NASA and CNES.

January 6, 2016, 05:49 PST

A taste of the sea with Jason-3

Launching and lunching into space

Sustainable seafood model of the Jason-3 satellite.

Sustainable seafood model of the Jason-3 satellite.

The time has come, once again, to prepare for that thing we at NASA are best known for: launching satellites into space. And to commemorate this awesome occasion, I created, once again, an edible model.

This time, though, is a bit different. This time it’s Jason-3, and I kind of have a soft spot for it. See, Jason-3 is an oceanography satellite, and to me, the ocean will always be the most important thing in the world. Scheduled to launch January 17 at 10:42 a.m. PST, Jason-3 follows its predecessors, TOPEX/Poseidon (1992), Jason-1 (2001) and Jason-2 (2008, the first launch I ever saw), to continue measuring global ocean surface topography – or variations in sea level.

Gathering highly accurate sea-level measurements allows us to understand both global and regional changes in sea level rise, ocean circulation patterns and, of course, El Niño. (Yup, look outside. It’s raining its butt off, just like NASA scientists predicted it would, based on Jason-2 data.)

Also, by having a long, uninterrupted time series of data, we get the opportunity to better understand the long-term implications of ocean-warming due to climate change.

As usual, I made this model out of food I actually eat. The spacecraft bus is made of seafood risotto: rice, stock, butter, cream, clams, calamari, scallops, broccoli and saffron. The altimeter, which measures sea level, wave heights and wind speed, is tiger shrimp. The microwave radiometer, which measures water vapor and helps ensure instrument accuracy, is a clam shell. The GPS, which tells us the satellite’s exact position, is bell pepper. The DORIS instrument and the Laser Retroreflector Array, which also provide satellite location info, are green beans. The solar array is nori seaweed.

Because I care so much about our ocean, and because much of the seafood around the world is unsustainably caught, I always use the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch app when selecting seafood. The app gives recommendations for choosing seafood that’s fished or farmed in ways that have less environmental impact.

BTW, yes, I ate the model. It paired quite nicely with a buttery Chardonnay.

Thanks for reading,

Laura

 

TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 were cooperative missions between NASA and the French space agency, CNES. Additional partners in the Jason-2 mission included NOAA and Eumetsat. Jason-3 continues the international cooperation, with NOAA and Eumetsat leading the efforts, along with partners NASA and CNES.

December 21, 2015, 06:15 PST

Cautious optimism around climate change

A P-3B aircraft waiting outside the hangar at Thule Air Base. The Greenland Ice Sheet is in the background. Credit: NASA/M. Studinger.

A P-3B aircraft waiting outside the hangar at Thule Air Base. The Greenland Ice Sheet is in the background. Credit: NASA/M. Studinger.

It’s the winter solstice, the time of year when the Northern Hemisphere is the most tilted away from the sun and we get our shortest day and longest night. It’s a time to rest, to sit quietly and to reflect on the events of the past year. Most assuredly, 2015 will again be another record-breaking year for Earth’s climate. And while it’s true that you and I have probably shared many feelings of disappointment about climate change every year, year after year, recently I’ve noticed a glimmer of hope.

So let’s take a moment on this dark day to look towards the light of our shared future and be hopeful.

Here are a couple of things that made me feel optimistic over the past few weeks.

  • COP 21 — On Dec. 12, 195 countries adopted the Paris Agreement at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change. The agreement aims to limit our planet's average global temperature rise to less than 2 degrees Celsius. Read the full document here. And while we all know that there is obviously much more work to do, the fact that we have some movement in the right direction is motivating.
  • American Geophysical Union (AGU) conference — Last week 22.5 thousand Earth and space scientists from 114 countries attended AGU in San Francisco, California. This conference is where everyone comes to talk about their work and is also a great opportunity for the public to access the latest important science. I was inspired by a talk I heard by Susan Hassol of Climate Communication. Social psychology, she explained, tells us we’re more motivated by thinking that we’re not starting from scratch, that we’re already on our way. She pointed out that 84 percent of Americans support clean energy, for example. “Not only do we have to feel hopeful, but we have to speak hopefully because people are motivated by hope.” Hassol went on to point out that the cost of solar energy is falling, while the capacity of both solar and wind energy is rising. Yes, yes, yes, we are on our way.
  • A new website, Climate Feedback, is poised to help scientists peer review the web by annotating directly into online media. For a person like me, who writes about climate science for a living, it’s been devastating to see inaccuracies and confusion on this subject sometimes perpetuated by the media. The possibility of the scientific community being able to provide publishers, authors and readers with feedback about the scientific credibility of their content could be a real game changer. This has the potential to shift the public towards a much better understanding of the evidence around climate science. I’m so nervously optimistic about this one, I can’t even say.

As this year comes to a close, I want to thank you for reading, sharing and joining together, and I’m so looking forward to our shared future.

Laura

December 9, 2015, 13:41 PST

A wave of optimism at the United Nations climate summit in Paris

NASA oceanographer Michelle Gierach at the U.N. Conference of the Parties 21 (COP21) U.S. Center in Paris. Credit: NASA.

NASA oceanographer Michelle Gierach at the U.N. Conference of the Parties 21 (COP21) U.S. Center in Paris. Credit: NASA.

Think back to when you were a kid imagining what you were going to be when you grew up. You dreamt that someday, somehow, you would make a difference, a contribution, that your work would be meaningful in the world. If you accomplished this today, how pumped would you be?

“This is going to sound really cheesy and lame,” NASA oceanographer Michelle Gierach told me over a Skype call from COP21 in Paris, “but I just get a sense of pride being from the U.S. and being a cool NASA representative and seeing people get excited about what we do. In my day-to-day job, I sometimes forget how much Americans and international people from everywhere love to know what we’re doing. It reinvigorates a sense of pride in NASA's work.”

Because of the nine-hour time difference, I was barely awake for our call, and through my morning mental blur I wondered for a moment if the glee in her voice had something to do with the fact that I’m a fantastic person and she was thrilled to be speaking with me, or perhaps she was hopped up on chocolate. “They give you chocolate bars every day!” she squealed. “I’m not lying, and it’s really good chocolate.”

But it was the conference, COP21, the 21st Conference of the Parties of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, that had her all giddy. You see, after so many years of stagnation, resistance and even moving backwards, finally, finally there seems to be movement toward global action against climate change. Yes, it’s baby steps, and yes, there’s more work to do, “but some movement is significant,” she stressed. “I’ll take it.”

All of us are hungry for something positive. Always. Especially now, since most of the news lately has been such a total bummer. A positive message around climate could be that bump in optimism that we all need right now. 

The U.N. COP21 meeting in Paris began on Nov. 30, and by this Friday, Dec. 11, 195 member nations hope to reach a unanimous agreement to cut greenhouse gas emissions, hold global warming to 2 degrees Celsius or even lower and provide financial support to developing nations so they can bypass fossil fuels.

It’s hard not to feel optimistic. Part of you wants to get your hopes up, but you also don’t want to be disappointed, because for so many years there’s been so much disappointment. Then there’s that part of you that says, This time is different. This time we can do it. Gierach told me that she felt an energy about reaching an outcome at COP21. The overall vibe is “completely optimistic, everybody wants to do something, everybody knows we have to do something. There’s a 'let’s do it' kind of attitude.”

Hyper about the hyperwall

This animation shows the ocean surface CO2 flux between 1/1/2009 and 12/31/2010. Blue colors indicate uptake and orange-red colors indicate outgassing of ocean carbon. The pathlines indicate surface wind stress. Credit: NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio.

Last week we’d spoken about her upcoming trip. She had conflicted feelings due to the recent events in Paris and was concerned about a heightened state of worry and icky vibes. “As a NASA representative,” she explained, “my role is to show what NASA is doing with regards to climate change, even though I’m not a delegate or a policy maker. I was so excited to go, and now I’m just not so excited about it anymore.” But what a difference one week and a few thousand miles made. From the conference her voice sounded triumphant: “Everybody here wants to show that it’s not going to stop what they’re trying to do here. It hasn’t stopped it at all.”

Gierach also told me she was “super excited that this time around it finally seems people are listening. People see that the oceans are part of a massive system and actually are a significant reason we haven’t had a more extreme temperature rise. That message seems to be getting out there.” She’s been talking about the oceans every day on NASA’s hyperwall, an ultra-high resolution visualization that combines nine computer monitors into a giant screen that plays animations in tandem.

On Dec. 3, she joined a panel called “Oceans under pressure” to discuss the following main points of consensus that we can see from satellites: 

  • The sea surface temperature record shows that the ocean is warming, which clearly impacts Arctic sea ice reduction, the different types of sea ice, and ice sheet reduction.
  • Sea level rise is not equal around the globe; for example, the western tropical Pacific has much higher sea level rise than the eastern equatorial Pacific.
  • It's crucial to keep monitoring the global ocean, so NASA has a suite of future satellites planned, such as Jason-3 and SWOT.

And because a significant portion of the conference is dedicated to carbon emissions, she’s also talking about the interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere and how carbon dioxide transfers between the two.

Just before we hung up, she added, with power in her voice like a chant or rally call, “Yeah, we’re here and we’re going to do something. We’re not just speaking; we’re actually acting and showing that we’re acting.”

Watch the live stream from the U.S. Center at COP-21 in Paris here

Watch the "Oceans Under Pressure" panel with panelists Jean-Pierre Gattuso, IDDRI/CNRS; Jean-Pierre Gattuso, IDDRI/CNRS; Alexander MacDonald, NOAA; Michelle Gierach, NASA; Cassandra deYoung, FAO here.

Thank you so much for reading,

Laura

P.S. Michelle was totally inspired by President Obama’s speech and said, “Regardless of what people may think, he is trying to make the world a better place. It made me extremely proud to be part of the United States and have him as our president.” Watch the speech here.

November 24, 2015, 13:08 PST

Gummy penguins

The other Thanksgiving bird

Not quite real penguins on a not quite real ice floe.

Not quite real penguins on a not quite real ice floe.

Take a moment from your holiday preparations to consider what a science team in Antarctica will be feasting on this Thursday. Here’s a hint: It’s not turkey. According to Dr. Heidi Roop, research associate at the University of Rochester’s Taylor Glacier Blue Ice Drilling Project, the hottest new tradition among polar scientists working in the field in Antarctica is to chow down on gummy penguins for the Thanksgiving holiday—and today, she’s busy stuffing her suitcase with the candy critters.

As soon as the Air National Guard’s C-17 aircraft gets her to McMurdo Station, Antarctica, and then a helicopter gets her to Taylor Glacier, she expects her backpack will be the most sought-after game in camp, at least for a few days. Sugary snacks help field scientists get through the cold nights, she explained. Sometimes they sleep with candy in their tents so they can keep their metabolism up. “A chocolate bar at midnight is of one the quickest ways to get warm,” Roop explains.

Heidi Roop
Dr. Heidi Roop packs for an Antarctic expedition.

Roop and the rest of the polar expedition team will spend two months in the field drilling 70 meters down through Taylor Glacier in Antarctica’s Dry Valleys to collect ice core samples. They melt the ice cores on site to release the air bubbles that had been trapped in the ice. The analysis of ancient air extracted from ice cores is a crucial way for scientists to gather evidence of greenhouse gases, such as methane, in Earth’s past climate.

You can find out more about the University of Rochester Ice Core Lab here and follow their expedition here. I’ll continue to write about their field research once they’ve finished their candy feast and gotten out of their tents to work off their sugar high in the cold, blue icescape.

And whatever you decide to feast on, I hope you enjoy it.

Laura

November 16, 2015, 15:55 PST

#Science is hard. Everything doesn’t just land on your lap.

Take OCO-2 for example.

#Science is hard. Everything doesn’t just land on your lap.

NASA’s Global Climate Change website gets a lot of user feedback. Aside from typical random Internet trolls and students posing thinly veiled attempts at getting us to write their term papers, one of the most commonly asked questions goes something like this:

“Hey, NASA, are you really sure people are causing climate change? Have you double-checked?” or “Hey, NASA, I have an idea. Maybe climate change is caused by x, y, z and it’s not really caused by humans. You should look into this.”

The short answer to this type of question is “Yes, we’ve double-, triple-, quadruple-checked. It’s science! We check and recheck a gazillion times. We’ve looked into everything you could possibly imagine and more. Before we commit to what we say, we have a strong desire to make sure it’s actually true.”

One example of how careful we have to be is when we’re analyzing the carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere from space. OCO-2 is the NASA mission designed to be sensitive enough to detect a single part of carbon dioxide per million parts of atmosphere (ppm). The way it works is super complicated. And because carbon dioxide is the most important human contribution to climate change (the biggest issue of our time) and expectations of science results were set very high, we have to be super-duper certain our measurements are correct.

The sensitivity makes it very challenging.

The instruments on OCO-2 not only measure the absolute amount of carbon dioxide at a location, but they also look for very small gradients in the distribution of CO2, the difference in the distribution of carbon dioxide between one location and another as a function of time. For example, “a gradient on and off a city is like 2 parts per million,” explained Mike Gunson, project scientist for the mission. "You see 2 parts per million from any city of modest size on up. You’re looking at the difference between 399.5 and 401.5 parts per million. So you have to be careful. Nobody’s done this over New York City, Mumbai, Beijing or Shanghai, where it could be wildly different.”

Scientists spend their lives working to get reliable data. Science is hard; it’s not a walk in the park. Everything doesn't just land in your lap. Sometimes it’s a miracle to get any data at all. People don’t often talk about the challenges of doing science, but if you could uncover the history of any project, you would probably find loads of problems, issues and challenges that come up.

After most NASA satellite launches, the instruments typically go through a validation phase, a two- or three-month period when engineers and project managers check, double-check and recheck the data coming in from the satellite to assess its quality and make sure it’s absolutely accurate before it’s released to the scientific community. But with OCO-2, “there is no validation phase,” Gunson told me, “because the measurements have such sensitivity. You’re always validating. Constant validation is an integral part of ensuring the integrity of the dataset.”

For OCO-2 to make an observation, the sky has to be clear, without clouds. Too much wind will move the carbon dioxide, so you also need quiet meteorological conditions. Then, before we can make an inference, we must assess the quality of data, which involves exceptionally large computing capacity.” Because there is so much data coming in, you end up using all sorts of analysis techniques, including machine learning, to analyze the quality of the data. OCO-2 launched in July 2014, and since this past September the data have been released to the broader science community to sink their teeth into. This means, Gunson said, “after a year of alligator-wrestling, all of a sudden we can walk it on a leash.”

Find out more about OCO-2 here and here. And check out the data here.

Learn more about NASA’s efforts to better understand the carbon and climate challenge.

I look forward to your comments.

Laura

October 29, 2015, 06:00 PDT

Waste not, want not

Is climate change a challenge or an opportunity? Or both?

A huge landfill at the Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County, Florida. Photo courtesy of Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County.

A huge landfill at the Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County, Florida. Photo courtesy of Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County.

It would be so easy to sit around all day complaining about climate change and global warming. I mean, hey, we’ve got so many storms that my colleague who updates “Latest Events” on our Eyes on the Earth web app rolls her eyes as if to say “I can’t even.” Global warming, drought, El Niño, big hurricanes: Planet Earth is like, “You want a piece of me?” And even as the challenge of climate change and global warming hits us in the face like wave after wave of storm surge, I ask myself: Are they challenges or are they opportunities? Or both?  

Some thrive on transforming things that appear negative. And perhaps nothing appears more negative than our garbage. It’s … garbage, refuse, trash, rubbish, junk – the waste products of our lives, the stuff we determine useless. Wouldn’t it be amazing if it were possible to take that discarded dreck and turn it into something that we really, really want and need?

Well, there is.

And the Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County, Florida has taken the lead. They have the most advanced and cleanest waste-to-energy power plant in North America. They take trash directly from garbage trucks and load it into "the Pit," which is designed to handle up to seven days of waste. Grapples that look like giant claws feed the waste into one of three boilers. There, it’s burned to generate steam, which drives a turbine generator to produce electricity. A suite of pollution control technologies ensures extremely low air emissions.

A grapple moves a pile of garbage to the incinerator to be converted to energy in the renewable energy facility instead of being added to a landfill. Photo courtesy of Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County.
A grapple moves a pile of garbage to the incinerator to be converted to energy in the renewable energy facility instead of being added to a landfill. Photo courtesy of Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County.

The plant can process 3,000 tons of trash every day and convert it into enough electricity to power more than 40,000 homes and businesses. Yeah. 

There are a bunch of reasons why waste-to-energy power plants benefit the environment:

  • First, the Renewable Energy Facilities at the Solid Waste Authority reduce greenhouse gas emissions by producing electricity that otherwise would have been generated by burning fossil fuels.
  • The system also decreases the volume of waste that goes to the landfill, thereby limiting methane generation, which is 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas.
  • The facility has recycled nearly 2 million tons of paper, plastic, aluminum and glass and recovers metals, such as iron and aluminum, from materials discarded by the residents and businesses. Manufacturing new products from recycled materials consumes less energy and significantly reduces greenhouse gas generation compared to mining and metal production from raw materials.
  • The Solid Waste Authority also collects gases generated by the landfill to effectively prevent emissions into the atmosphere. These gases are harnessed to produce energy, which helps reduce fossil fuel reliance.

Tom Henderson, project manager at Arcadis, managed the development of this 7- to 8-year project, because he knew how to put the team of talented people together and understood the political and engineering aspects of getting the plant built. During our phone conversation, he told me “the primary purpose of these facilities is to eliminate the need for a landfill.”

Landfills are forever

I told him I didn’t think most of this blog’s readers had ever been to a landfill, so I asked him to describe what it’s like to stand next to one.

“The first thing you notice is that these facilities are huge,” he told me. “It’s not like there’s a couple of bags of trash brought there every day. There’s tens of thousands of tons, hundreds and hundreds of truckloads, so the first thing you’re impressed with is how much trash there is. It’s just this huge volume of material.” Throwing so much stuff away is one of the major greenhouse gas and climate change contributors.

Yikes. I wondered if you could identify individual things or if it looked more like a mush pit. “You see food waste, a lot of paper and plastic, mattresses. The smell is pretty bad,” he told me. “Just about anything you could imagine in your home or office today is going to end up at a place like that in most places in this country.”

I looked around my room at my night table with a lamp on it, a moisturizer, a phone cable, some papers. I thought about all the Halloween decorations I’d walked past this morning.

All of it, all of it, all of it, ends up in a landfill

We went on to discuss how, as a society, we’ve become very selfish. People don’t want to think about this big mound of trash. We want what we want and we don’t care what happens to it after the trash truck drives off. Yup, that is us.  

Well, some people care; you might even be one of them. But judging by the way our society disposes its trash, its waste products, it’s obvious we don’t care enough to stop what we’ve been doing.  

“Landfills are very inexpensive to build,” said Henderson, “but you have to maintain them forever.” (He emphasized the word “ever” as if to extend the timeline with the tone of his voice.) “A hundred years from now, the liner system will have failed and we have to go back and spend money to clean it.” As he spoke, I thought about the parallel to climate change: The maintenance cost is not included in the initial cost of the landfill, just as the cost of adaptation is not included in the price of burning fossil fuels.

Henderson explained how easy it is to “build landfills if nobody is there to complain about it.” But in Palm Beach County, Florida, the County Commission decided to deal with their own problem, rather than exporting it like a lot of other large cities. When people are involved in their community, they have more control over what happens. “We’re creating this problem. We should deal with it ourselves.” Waste-to-energy plants are usually right inside the community. They decided that it was not okay to put the garbage in a truck and drive it hundreds and hundreds of miles “away.” And in fact, at their waste-to-energy facility, they have a sign that says, “This is where ‘away’ is.”

On Planet Earth, there is no “away.” “Away” is here.  

Find out more about the Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County, Florida's waste-to-energy plant here and here.

And thank you so much for reading.

Laura

October 20, 2015, 12:26 PDT

When global warming gets you down, come back stronger

Credit: Barnaby Chambers/Shutterstock.com

Credit: Barnaby Chambers/Shutterstock.com

There are days when you just want to crawl under your desk and hide in the fetal position. I felt like that this morning. And indeed, I may feel this way for the rest of the week – or longer. Everywhere I turn, some giant challenge smacks me in the gut (ahem, global warming) and I’m supposed to bounce with glee like “NASA, NASA, rah rah roo!” all day long.

I’m sure you know what I mean. This weekend I walked past a busy café and saw single use plastic trash spilling everywhere. You can see this in café after café, day after day, everywhere. It’s a symptom of people paying lip service to caring for the environment, but being absolutely paralyzed. If the most we ask of ourselves is to buy more and more stuff and carry it a whole 2 feet to a trash bin, then how in the world are we going to tackle the big things?

The energy it takes to make honest, interesting and informative content for this climate website, the energy it takes to not let the daily deluge of Internet trolls and nasty comments get to me, all while facing the reality of GLOBAL WARMING, is exhausting.

I try to make a difference, to keep encouraging myself, to lift myself out of despair. We’re supposed to keep our noses to the do-something-meaningful-with-your-life grindstone and keep chugging endlessly uphill, just like The Little Engine That Could, while repeating some mindless positive slogans of encouragement to keep our heads up.

I try to find a way to cope with these enormous problems without turning away, without downing a pint of ice cream, without watching the stupidest reality TV show I can find. For to be so disconnected from the world as to be capable of polluting it, is to be disconnected from life. And connection is the one thing I refuse to let go of.

True, maybe you really should crawl under your desk and your little engine should pull over to the side of the road for a break. But you’re here, just like I am, pushing through because it’s somehow better to stay connected even if it hurts.

I’ve sat in countless meetings here at NASA, where scientists and engineers fight to create complex flying machines that observe particles as tiny as a molecule from miles away, or hand build a one-of-a-kind experimental instrument from scratch, out of nothing but innovation and dreams. We thrive on the incomprehensibly difficult. We welcome problems, challenges, roadblocks, obstacles that are impossibly, mind-bogglingly large. That’s why I’m here: To feed on frustration, difficulty and hindrance until I grow stronger and more ferocious.

JPL engineers working on hardware in the clean room. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech.
JPL engineers working on hardware in the clean room. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

I look forward to your comments.

Laura

October 6, 2015, 04:17 PDT

Satellites, ships, planes and yes, it’s true: NASA has balloons, too!

(Sooner or later, we’re bound to have hoverboards)

The balloon launch at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, carrying Langley Research Center's Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X). Credit: Brett Vincent, NASA's Wallops Flight Facility

The balloon launch at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, carrying Langley Research Center's Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X). Credit: Brett Vincent, NASA's Wallops Flight Facility

Those of you who follow this blog know that, on top of launching satellites into space, NASA has a suite of Earth-observing instruments, a robust airborne program of instruments mounted on planes, and science ships.

Final frontier? I don’t think so. Our catch phrase should be more like “Frontiers are us.” We’re all over the place.

Recently, Chris Mertens, a NASA scientist interested in galactic cosmic rays, shepherded a NASA balloon all the way to the top of Earth’s atmosphere. The balloon, which stood a couple hundred feet tall and held 11 million cubic feet of helium, had a flight train attached to it with a payload of four science instruments and a parachute. He watched it lift off from NASA’s Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, and float away on a 24-hour research journey. “It was pretty surreal seeing it drift vertically away,” he told me. “The apparatus looked big in the flight facility but looked so small as it was going up. It floated so gracefully, effortlessly.”

Up, up and away

As the balloon lifted off, Chief Engineer Amanda Cutright could hear two sets of cheers, one at the location and a second over the delay at NASA’s Langley Research Center where members of the team were watching a broadcast of the event. But she was “still holding her breath,” waiting for the data to come in.

Mertens and Cutright, along with Project Manager Kevin Daugherty and the rest of the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) team, had spent the past few weeks prepping the balloon and payload in the deserts of New Mexico and had been anxiously awaiting its launch. (Dosimetry is the science of determining radiation dosages received by the human body.) Daugherty told me they’d been waiting for the winds to stagnate in the upper atmosphere so they could fly over the southeastern U.S. for 24 hours without going into the populated areas of Mexico or Los Angeles.

Up in the air

The project actually began years ago when Mertens heard a pilot say, “I’m exposed to radiation and I don’t know how much.” See, someone on a one-way plane trip from Chicago to Germany on a normal day is exposed to approximately one chest X-ray’s worth of radiation. Because commercial airline pilots and aircrew fly so frequently, they are actually radiation workers. So, with his background in cosmic radiation and space weather physics, Mertens knew he could develop a model to predict the radiation levels in Earth’s upper atmosphere and answer that question. With this balloon flight, the RaD-X team expects to learn more about the amount of radiation flight crews receive on a daily, monthly or yearly basis and throughout their careers.

Up, up, up, up

The balloon on edge of space, showing the Earth's curvature. Credit: Brett Vincent, NASA's Wallops Flight Facility
A view of the edge of space from RaD-X onboard camera.

About two hours after launch, the balloon reached the middle of the stratosphere, about 110-120 thousand feet up, right on the edge of space. That’s about three times as high as commercial airplanes normally fly. From onboard cameras, “we could see the curvature of the Earth and watch the clouds recede,” said Cutright. The team wanted to look at the incoming galactic cosmic rays and radiation from the sun above the region where the particles interact with the atmosphere and break up into smaller particles. “Earth’s radiation environment is complex,” Mertens explained. “Our magnetic field has a dynamic response to the solar wind and varies with latitude. At the polar regions, radiation exposure is maximum because the magnetic field lines are vertical. This means that during a solar storm, the incoming charged particles at the polar cap are parallel to the magnetic field lines, so there’s no deflection by the magnetic field.”

Yes, Earth’s magnetic field is seriously rad.

Earth's magnetosphere
The sun's magnetic storms approaching Earth's magnetosphere. The white lines represent the solar wind; the purple line is the bow shock line; and the blue lines surrounding the Earth represent its protective magnetosphere. Isn't the magnetosphere rad? Credit: Solar and Heliospheric Observatory

Just past sunset, they purposely let enough helium out of the balloon to lower it to the 70-89 thousand foot range and have it float there overnight. All four dosimetry instruments collected data at both altitudes to feed into NAIRAS, an analytical model that simulates tissue and how radiation impacts it.

For the rest of the flight, the RaD-X team watched visuals from the onboard cameras, gathered near real-time data on their computers and tracked the balloon flight path from the control room.

“At one point late at night,” said Cutright, “we were watching the Earth and we could see the moon. We could see a lightning storm over Oklahoma, all the way from the edge of Texas and New Mexico.”

After sunrise, the team watched the parachute deploy so the payload could descend safely; from the camera view, they watched the Earth getting bigger and bigger. The payload was cut from the balloon and a large hole ripped on the side of the balloon so it could fall on its own off to the side. The balloon landed in a rancher’s field and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility out of NASA Wallops recovered it.

Thank you for reading and for your comments.

Laura

PS: 100 low-cost Cubes in Space experiments from 100 classrooms across the country were also on the flight. Some of their experiments included kernels of popcorn to see if they pop at altitude and seeds and electronics to find out how radiation affects them. Now that you know NASA helped students send kernels of popcorn to the edge of space, aren’t you dying to find out if they popped or not? I am. I’ll try my best to find out and post it here.

September 28, 2015, 06:06 PDT

#OhMyGawd

You’re gonna lose it when you hear about Oceans Melting Greenland

The M/V Cape Race at Kullorsuaq, Greenland, picks up fresh drinking water. Credit: Justin Fenty

The M/V Cape Race at Kullorsuaq, Greenland, picks up fresh drinking water. Credit: Justin Fenty

This morning when I told someone I’d interviewed NASA oceanographer Josh Willis for this blog, they replied, “Isn’t Josh Willis a climatologist?”

“Aha!” I said. “That’s a problem. Not knowing that Earth’s ocean is responsible for controlling the climate is major. Oceanographers are climatologists.”

I mean, look, the ocean covers 71 percent of the planet’s surface, and 71 percent is like, duh, a lot. The ocean, in fact, is so important that a better name for our planet would have been “Ocean” rather than “Earth” — even though our species spends most of its time on boring old land. #sorrynotsorry, geologists.

And you might not realize this because it’s so familiar, but water is crazy. It has this unusual property, called “high heat capacity,” that gives it the ability to hold a stable temperature. It resists heating and cooling. Water will absorb a lot of energy before it changes temperature even a little bit.

And this property of water, this high heat capacity, is what makes life on our planet possible. It’s also what controls and moderates our climate, which is why our ocean, more than our atmosphere, is responsible for creating a stable climate on Earth.

So this is the reason oceanographers are climatologists. It’s also part of the reason Willis chose to name his new science project Oceans Melting Greenland (OMG). He hopes that people everywhere will recognize the role Earth’s ocean plays in controlling the climate and to say to the world, “Hey! The ocean is eating away at the ice sheet! The ocean is playing a huge role in melting the glaciers; it's melting Greenland!”

Remember I just told you water absorbs a lot of energy before it heats up? Well, humans have added so much energy to the Earth system by burning fossil fuels that we have heated the ocean. And now that we’ve warmed it up, you guessed it: The water is in no hurry to change back, so we’re going to be stuck with this warmer water for a very long time. And, says Willis, “Since Greenland is one of the last two remaining ice sheets on the planet, its fate is intertwined with how much destruction we’re going to have with climate change.” If you just said “OMG,” you would be right.

But if you think scientists know everything there is to know about the ocean, you would be very wrong. Willis and his team want to find out more about the complicated geometry (the shape and depth of the seafloor) around Greenland to understand the interaction between the water and ice so that we can find out how fast the glaciers are melting.

M/V Cape Race ship track for phase 1 of 2015 OMG survey
M/V Cape Race ship track for phase 1 of 2015 OMG survey. Credit: Ian Fenty
This summer OMG used a ship, M/V Cape Race, to sail right up the narrow fjords on the continental shelf surrounding Greenland to the places where the 4- to 5-degree Atlantic Ocean water meets the bottoms of the frozen zero degree glaciers. The Cape Race used a multibeam echo sounder to map undersea canyons where the warm seawater comes in contact with and melts the glaciers. Willis followed the ship’s path via smartphone, sitting up in his PJs at two o’clock in the morning and uttering a variety of exclamations, including “OMG, turn left, left!”

Next year, the Cape Race will continue to make its way around Greenland, mapping the depth of the seafloor near the fjords, while Willis joins his team in the field flying on NASA’s G-III plane.

“OMG is a big picture project,” he told me. ”We want to see what’s happening in the ocean on the large scale and what’s happening to the ice sheet on the largest scales.”

In the spring, the NASA aircraft, with Willis aboard, will measure how much Greenland glaciers are thinning using the Glacier and Ice Surface Topography Interferometer (GLISTIN-A) instrument. They plan to deploy temperature and salinity probes in the summer. “In most of these places, there’s been no temperature and salinity data collected,” Willis said pausing, “ever.” Over the next five years, they will continue to monitor the ice sheet, asking, “When the water is this warm, how much ice melts?”

Willis knows “OMG” is a campy name for a NASA mission that makes light of a serious subject. “It’s easier to accept something as a reality when you can laugh at it, and accepting reality is a step towards making a change,” he said, explaining that if he was bummed out about climate change all the time, he would be stuck. “Humor makes it tolerable.”

Hopefully, when you find out about Oceans Melting Greenland, you’ll respond in the only way that’s appropriate: “OMG!”

Find out more about Oceans Melting Greenland herehere and here.

View an infographic about the mission here.

Thank you for reading, sharing and commenting.

Laura